Tool steels are a family carbon and alloy steels having distinct characteristics such as hardness, wear resistance, toughness, and resistance to softening at elevated temperatures. Tool steels comprise carbide-forming elements such as chromium, vanadium, molybdenum and tungsten in different combinations. Tool steels are frequently used for the shaping of other materials. Types of tool steel include hot work, cold work, plastic mould and high speed steel. The choice of steel for a particular application depends on which tool steel properties suit best, such as the required hardness, shock resistance, strength and toughness. Other considerations include the working temperature, abrasion resistance and working environment. Tool steels are used for shaping metals, plastics, glass forming in glass-works, woodworking, paper production, guillotines, blades, drill bits and cutting tools. These are just examples of applications, and the term "tool steel" is permanently granted by the tools made of it during the initial development of the whole subgroup. Today the scope of application is so wide that it is hard to unambiguously catalog all grades to one department.
Stainless steel is a group of iron-based alloys that contain a minimum of approximately 11% chromium, a composition that prevents the iron from rusting and also provides heat-resistant properties. In comparison with aluminium, stainless steel is approximately 3 times heavier. Stainless steel, like steel itself, is an alloy. An alloy always consists of different materials. Among the most frequent alloying elements in non-corrosive stainless steel is chrome, where nickel, molybdenum and further elements are used for special requirements. The magnetisability, as well as the corrosion resistance, are two of these requirements which are controlled by the different alloys. Stainless steel is an exceedingly versatile material. It is preferred where the properties of steel and corrosion resistance are required in tandem. Its first use was in cutlery but due to its corrosion resistance properties. Next, it found its way to the chemical industry. Today, we can see stainless steel pretty much everywhere. Food and catering, Chemicals and pharmaceuticals, Medical equipment manufacturing, Architecture and construction, Home appliances, Offshore and shipbuilding, Automotive manufacturing, Energy and industry
Carbon steel, also called plain carbon steel, is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. The only other alloying elements allowed in plain-carbon steel are manganese (1.65% max), silicon (0.60% max), and copper (0.60% max). Steel with a low carbon content has the same properties as iron, soft but easily formed. As carbon content rises the metal becomes harder and stronger but less ductile and more difficult to weld. Higher carbon content lowers steel’s melting point and its temperature resistance in general. It's used to make extremely hard components like blades, cutting tools and large machine parts, hot water radiators, industrial castings and metal lamp posts. It's also called 'cast iron', and it's the material used to make old fashioned cooking pots.
Tempered steels are unalloyed and alloyed machine manufacturing steels whose chemical compounds are suitable for hardening especially due to carbon content and display high firmness against a certain tensile strength after the tempering process. In tempered steels, high strength and ductility is desired as well as hardenability properties. To be able to obtain adequate level of hardness, tempered steels contain relatively more carbon. Since hardness depth is the most important criterion for thick cross-section parts, these parts are manufactured from alloyed tempered steels. Tempering process is described as the combination of hardening and then damascening processes in which the steel part will gain high firmness properties. Tempered steels are widely used for manufacturing of various machinery and engine parts, forged parts, including a great variety of bolts, nuts and studs, crankshafts, axles, controller and drive parts, piston arms, several types of axles, teeth, etc. due to their superior mechanical properties at the end of the tempering process. Thus, tempered steels are the most manufactured and used type of steel after construction and unalloyed steels.
Case Hardening Steel
Steels for carburizing and case hardening typically have a relatively low carbon level, 0.10-0.25% C, and are used when there is a demand for varying properties, such as for components in transmissions. Case hardening entails the treatment of a finished component in a carburizing atmosphere at a high temperature, typically 850–950°C, which increases the carbon content at the surface of the component. The carburized layer is typically 0,5–1,0 mm deep but can be deeper. Following carburization, the part is quenched and thereby hardened. During quenching the carburized layer is transformed to martensite with hardness determined by the carbon content. The result is thus a component with a hard surface and a comparably soft core. Case-hardening steel is used in automotive engineering as well as in mechanical and plant engineering for parts such as cardan shafts, coupling parts, gears and bolts.
Nitriding is a heat-treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case-hardened surface. The processes are thus similar to case-hardening but performed at a lower temperature. The advantage with nitriding is mainly the reduced distortion behavior compared to carburizing and still give a high surface strength and ductile core. However, since the process is performed at lower temperature, the same case depth as for carburizing will take considerable time to reach. Nitriding can also increase the corrosion resistance of a component. Typical applications are small gears, crank shafts and wear parts.
Free Cutting Steel
Free cutting steels are steels with low machining cost due to chips broken when subjected to fast chipping process. Thanks to its easy machinability characteristics, these steels are defined as the most suitable for machining processes such as longitudinal and face turning, toothing, drilling, reaming operations that are performed in multi spindle and revolver turning lathes. These steels are used for manufacturing axles, bolts, screws, nuts, special duty shafts, connecting rods, small and medium forgings, cold upset wires and rods, solid turbine rotors, rotor and gear shaft, armature, key stock, forks and anchor bolts screw stock, spring clips, tubing, pipes, light weight rails, concrete reinforcing etc.
The term yield strength refers to a material's ability to endure significant bending or twisting and return to its original shape without deforming. Spring steel alloys feature the unique characteristic of being able to withstand considerable twisting or bending forces without any distortion. Products made from these steel alloys can be bent, compressed, extended, or twisted continuously, and they will return to their original shape without suffering any deformation. It is a common material used for manufacturing objects like springs, helical springs, tape measures, washers, saw blades, lock picks, antennas, and scrapers. It's also commonly used to create lawnmower parts, the landing gear of small aircrafts, and vehicle coil springs.
Bearing steel, or steel for rolling elements, is characterized by very high carbon content - about 1%. It is characterized by high hardness, high degree of purity of chemical composition, high hardening capacity, high strength and static fatigue and, in addition, adequate material durability. In this type of steel the main emphasis is on the wear resistance. Components (eg. rollers, rings, spheres) and other components of nearer applications are subject to continuous movement, contact with other components usually under high pressure.In many situations, specific corrosion resistance and resistance for the higher temperatures of the given steels are required. In some situations, by the chemical composition it can be determined and assing the bearing steels under the tool steels. Bearing steels must have a high machinability, no deformation during heat treatment, minimal non-metallic inclusions and sulfur, phosphorus, oxygen as well as a limited susceptibility to surface decontamination.
Structural Steel is a fantastic building and construction material. There are numerous reasons why it is so frequently used around the world. Structural steel is both reliable and adaptable. Structural steel has several applications in today's society, but the building is the one most closely linked with it. Steel is one of the most important building materials, chosen for various reasons, the most important are its adaptability, higher strength, more economical, rapid construction, easy repair or modification, high quality, and reliability.
It is possible to examine steel pipes under two headings; these are welded and seamless (drawn) pipes. Welded Pipes: Semi-finished products in the form of coils are first sized according to the desired pipe size. Then, the flat sheet is shaped step by step, first half a month and then a full circle. After the circle is completed, welding is performed similar to the movement of the sewing machine, and joining is performed from one end to the other. Pressure values are low as welding is used in its production. The purpose of use of welded pipes is mostly used in low pressure lines and for decorative purposes. Seamless (Drawn) Pipes: Produced by rolling the kiln-dried billet. At high rolling speed and pressure, the configuration creates pressure in the center of the slab and pierces with a pointed rod to form the tube sleeve. This sleeve is then extended to a multiple rolling stand with a mandrel or a long bar and placed inside the pipe to achieve the desired wall thickness and diameter range, completing its production. It is more resistant to pressure because it is poured in one piece and does not contain seams. It is especially preferred where the pressure is high.
Nickel will alloy readily with many other metals, including chromium, iron, molybdenum and copper. This allows for a wide variety of alloys that demonstrate outstanding resistance to corrosion and high-temperature scaling, exceptional high-temperature strength and other unique properties, such as shape memory and low coefficient of expansion. Its high versatility, combined with its outstanding heat and corrosion resistance has led to its use in a diverse range of applications; such as Aircraft gas turbines, steam turbines in power plants and its extensive use in the energy and nuclear power markets.
Titanium alloy is a metallic material that consists of titanium mixed with other metals, usually small quantities of palladium, vanadium, aluminum, and/or tin. These metals provide improved properties over pure titanium, such as corrosion resistance, good weldability (fabricability), stability, and strength at elevated temperatures. Pure titanium is very hard, which can make it challenging to weld and shape. The only typical application for pure titanium is orthopedic and dental implants, while the myriad other applications of titanium, including aerospace engineering, high-temperature engines, medical and marine processing, and athletic equipment use titanium alloy.
Powder Metallurgical Steel
Powder metallurgy is a metal-forming process performed by heating compacted metal powders to just below their melting points. Although the process has existed for more than 100 years, over the past quarter century it has become widely recognized as a superior way of producing high-quality parts for a variety of important applications. This success is due to the advantages the process offers over other metal forming technologies such as forging and metal casting, advantages in material utilization, shape complexity, near-net-shape dimensional control, among others. These, in turn, contribute to sustainability, making powder metallurgy a recognized green technology.
An aluminum alloy is a composition consisting mainly of aluminum to which other elements have been added. The alloy is made by mixing together the elements when aluminum is molten (liquid), which cools to form a homogeneous solid solution. The other elements may make up as much as 15 percent of the alloy by mass. Added elements include iron, copper, magnesium, silicon, and zinc. The addition of elements to the aluminum gives the alloy improved strength, workability, corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, and/or density, compared with the pure metallic element. Aluminum alloys tend to be lightweight and corrosion resistant. Aluminum alloys are incredibly versatile, sturdy, and reliable. For this reason, they are very sought-after in engineering, construction, and automotive applications, making for one of the most widespread metal materials, alongside steel.
Copper is known for its superb electrical and thermal conductivity. Compared with other metals, copper is quite versatile in forming alloys. There are over 400 types of copper alloys. Due to the unique alloy properties, each is suitable for specific applications. How the composition of an alloy is determined depends on design loads and the required corrosion resistance.
Plastic Mold Steel
Of plastics; They are tool steels used in shaping with injection, extrusion, blow molding and various pressing techniques. Plastic moulding is a part of our everyday lives. Car parts, mobile phones, spectacles and computer chassis are all manufactured in moulds. However, the materials needed to make these moulds often require unique and demanding characteristics. This is why it is crucial to select the correct steel grade for your specific mould. Harsh environments put steel under considerable stress. The problems are well-known, choosing the right tool steel is the solution. A moulder knows that the cost of excessive mould maintenance, e.g. major repolishing, clean- ing, replanting and replacing of worn or broken parts has to be taken into account. The costs of production and down time, overtime payment, late-delivery penalties and loss of customer good- will also need to be considered.
Hot Work Tool Steel
They are used for die casting, continues casting and die forging. When using them at temperatures of more than 200 °C and also at changing thermal loads the structure needs to be stable that warm ductility, high temperature strengths and wear-resistance will not be negatively affected. Due to the fact that not all required characteristics are realizable in one kind of steel the selection needs to be effected according to the use of the tools. Herewith the chemical composition shows two alloy groups: WCrV steels and CrMoV steels.
Cold Work Tool Steel
A better durability of the tool can be achieved due to an intelligent use of the raw material which ensures an economic production and also a high productivity. There are also for the cold work steels more and more high demands. This results from modern production machines for optimizing of manufacturing processes as well as the continous rising demands on the quality of the manufactured products. The temperatures are different; normally under 200°C surface temperature. For achieving the best material’s characteristics and also a long durability the coordination of the alloys is really important. Due to a different use of chrome, molybdenum, vanadium and tungsten the requested characteristics can be achieved with different steels. A distinction is drawn between cold work steels for cuts + cutting tools and cold work steels for stamping and piercing dies.
High Speed Steel
The group of high-speed steels includes all high-alloy tool steels that retain the necessary, high installed hardness of roughly 60 to 67 HRC at working temperatures of up to almost 600 °C. Their service properties are partly attributable to the high carbide content, which results in very high wear resistance. For every field of application, we supply individual, tailor-made steels characterised by the following properties, among other things: Very good wear resistance High pressure resistance Great toughness
Austenitic Stainless Steel
Steels with Chromium content between 16% and 26%, Nickel between 7% and 35% and Carbon (max. 0.15%), cannot be strengthened by quench hardening, but only through cold working (e.g. cold drawing). The main features of these steels are their resistance to corrosion, which is generally higher than other stainless steels, and their nonmagnetic behaviour.
Ferritic Stainless Steel
Steels with a chromium content of more than 10,5% and less than 0,15% carbon. Unlike martensitic steels, these grades cannot be stiffened by quench hardening but only through cold working (e.g. Cold drawing). Ferritic steels are ferromagnetic.
Martensitic Stainless Steel
Steels with Chromium content between 10–18%, Carbon up to 2% and with the addition of other elements. In order to improve both mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, they are heated to an appropriate temperature, 950°-1050°C, followed by suitable quenching and tempering. Martensitic steels are ferromagnetic.
Steels with a chromium content greater than 10,0% characterized by excellent mechanical properties due to the ageing process at set temperatures. This treatment generates a sub-microscopic phase precipitation of an element (e.g. Cu, Ti) consistent with the martensitic matrix of steel, thus enhancing the mechanical properties.
Duplex Stainless Steel
Duplex alloys were developed around a 22% Chromium addition level, which largely defines them from subsequent super duplex alloys which were developed around a 25% Chromium addition level for higher corrosion resistance still. The reason why they are called ‘duplex’ is due to the two-phase micro-structure consisting of both austenitic and ferritic grains that give them a combination of attractive properties. In general, they are twice as strong as either austenitic or ferritic stainless steels. They achieve good toughness and ductility, somewhere between the two. Their corrosion resistance is also very good, assuming comparable levels of Chromium, Molybdenum and Nitrogen in selected compositions. One important advantage over austenitic stainless steels is their resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Yet they are significantly more cost-effective, and less prone to price variability, due to their lower nickel content.